Starlings in the US: The Good, the Bad, the Bold, and the Beautiful


At a very young age, Connie learned from her Grandma Pearl to observe and love backyard birds. She stills feeds and studies them every day.

European starlings, also known as common starlings and mynas, are an Asian bird species (Sturnus vulgaris) that has become extremely common in the US. These highly social birds can be found across Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific Islands as well. Their shimmering, iridescent black-green-and-purple plumage is dotted with light speckles; some say it resembles a starry night sky. The beaks of adult males are lemon yellow, and they have long throat feathers which give them a rough appearance.

European Starling Facts

  • Species Name: Sturnus vulgaris
  • Size: 7½" to 9"
  • Geographic Origin: Asia
  • Lifespan: Approximately 15 years

How Were Starlings Introduced in the US?

Now considered one of the worst nuisance birds in this country, Old World starlings were purposely introduced to Central Park, New York City in 1890 by a well-meaning but misguided man named Eugene Schiefflin. The original 60 pairs that were released rapidly multiplied. Soon after, the American starling population exploded and the species spread rapidly throughout the entire U.S. and much of Canada. Starlings are known to compete with, displace, and kill many native birds and their young.

Starlings are now considered an invasive species and are despised by ecologists and birders alike. Despite their reputation, however, they do have some positive attributes.

The Good: Pros of Starlings in the US

  • They eat tons of gypsy moths and caterpillars, flies and fly larvae, and many other obnoxious insects.
  • Male Starlings are gifted nest decorators and fumigators.
  • Mated pairs are usually monogamous and are devoted parents.
  • Starlings are talented mimics—they can reproduce the sounds of humans, other birds, and inanimate objects. I once heard a starling accurately imitate a ringing phone!
  • Starlings are known for their gracefully synchronized aerial murmuration dances.
  • Their iridescent feathers shimmer and sparkle with star-like dots, so there is no doubting their beauty. I admire the majesty of their "star"-covered, gleaming feathers, despite their gluttony.

This male starling's plumage is amazingly iridescent.

The Bold and The Bad: Cons of Starlings in the US

  • Their aggression and territorial takeover habits have displaced and killed off many native songbirds. They are considered invasive by the US Fish and Wildlife Service.
  • Their corrosive droppings can damage all kinds of objects and surfaces.
  • They spread the seeds of weeds and eat large amounts of grain crops.
  • Because of their enormous flocks, they can interfere with aviation.
  • Their dominance at backyard bird feeders can push out the native bird visitors.

What Makes Starlings Unique?

Starlings have been extremely successful since their introduction to the US. They are intelligent birds who engage in a variety of unique behaviors that allow them to thrive in their environments.

They Work Together in Flocks

Flocks can number in the thousands and often move instinctively as one unit in the sky. Entire flocks swirl and change direction in flight as a survival tactic to evade predators like merlins, sparrow hawks, and falcons. This behavior is called murmuration. At dusk, smaller foraging groups join the larger flock seeking safety in numbers as they roost for the night.

They Are Strong and Noisy

Starlings will try to dominate any area they occupy and compete with native birds for food and cavity-nesting opportunities. Insects and fruit are their main food sources. On several occasions, I have seen a huge flock of starlings land on my grandparents’ large lawn. They systematically poked their beaks into the soil to forage for and feast on grubs and flies.

They Are Crafty

Male starlings build nests and decorate them with flowers to attract females. To repel insects, they add fresh herbs. How smart is that? The males’ mating calls vary and can include squawks, chortles, trills, and what sounds to me like someone pounding nails into a board!

They Reproduce Prolifically

If a female starling is properly impressed by a male's vocal talents and likes his floral offerings, she will promptly rip out his decorations and finish building the nest. The male is then officially accepted as her mate. The same nest will be used by the pair during the course of a breeding season to raise as many as three families. Four or more medium blue eggs are laid in the cups of soft, dried grass. Once the nestlings have hatched, both parents devote all their energy towards feeding their young.

How to Keep Starlings Away From Your Bird Feeder

If you should experience an invasion of these birds at your feeders, you have several options. It is important to discourage them from remaining in your area, as they will aggressively drive out adult songbirds and kill any baby birds they encounter in order to use the nesting spots for themselves.

  • Pause Feeding for a Few Weeks During Summer: Without a ready supply of seeds, your nuisance birds may move on. Natural food sources are abundant, so supplemental feeding can be safely put on hold without causing any undue stress for your regular songbird visitors.
  • Install a Cage-Type Feeder: If you keep your seeds in a cage-feeder, smaller birds with smaller beaks will be able to access them easily, but starlings will not.
  • Use an Upside-Down Suet Feeder: Songbirds can easily figure out how to hang from and obtain food from this type of suet holder, while larger birds like starlings cannot feed from this position.

Upside-down suet cake feeders keep birds like starlings and blue jays from gobbling up all your suet!

  • Use Grey-Striped Sunflower Seeds: Starlings can crack black oil sunflower seeds, but their beaks aren't strong enough to get into grey-striped seeds. Other backyard birds will be able to crack into these seeds, but starlings will not.
  • Don't Offer Cracked Corn or Millet: Starlings love both cracked corn and millet, so keep these items out of your feeder.
  • Remove Fallen Seeds and Husks From the Ground Below Your Feeder: Starlings often forage for food on the ground, so keeping the area under your feeder clear may help deter them.
  • Use a Birdfeeder That Closes Automatically: There are bird-feeders available that close automatically when squirrels or larger birds land on them. Small songbirds will still be able to use your feeder, but starlings will not.
  • Use a Tube-Style Feeder: The short perches and close feeding ports on tube-style feeders are awkward for larger bird species. Larger groups will not be able to dine at once, and this will cause squabbles. While the starlings are competing with each other, they won't be eating your seeds.
  • Outfit Your Birdhouses With Predator Tubes: These provide a small "tunnel" that songbirds can use with ease, but larger birds cannot enter. This prevents them from usurping the nest box or reaching the babies inside. They are forced to look elsewhere, and you'll have saved future generations of thankful songbirds.

Do You Have Starling Neighbors?

Unless you have falcons and hawks patrolling your area, you may experience these powerhouse birds. Use the above tactics to minimize their impact on your backyard bird population. Despite their aggressive takeover attitude, it is to their credit that they eat a massive amount of gypsy moth caterpillars, blowfly larvae, and other obnoxious insects. They are also attentive and devoted parents, and the murmuration "dances" they perform are truly awesome!

Gordon G. on August 14, 2020:

Very interesting information about starlings... yes extremely intelligent however they have found my fig tree and it’s delicious crop of fruit this summer and have helped themselves leaving a mess of half eaten fig litter for us to track into our house. In the past years we shared the figs and strawberries with a pair of local mockingbirds and we got along fine, but these starlings do not get my vote...

Karen Spence on June 17, 2020:

I love starlings. I have a variety of birds and other wildlife in my backyard and I have seen no evidence of starlings taking over. They are funny. They are loud and boisterous when they arrive, always in groups. Mom or Dad is still feeding the babies even though they re bigger than their parents now!

[email protected] on May 20, 2020:

These birds are dropping feces all over my patio and driveway. Is there anything I can do to keep them from making such a mess?

Connie crab on May 19, 2020:

I like the fact that they eat creepy bugs from my garden, however hate that they are aggressive with the songbirds ... I'm going to stop summer feeding without a proper feeding tube

Sherrie O'Neill on January 15, 2020:

Never had any of the problems with Starlings. And had a wide variety of birds in yard.

Lucy Saxton on November 17, 2018:

Facts from observation:- My starlings and sparrows eat alongside each other!! The magpies eat sparrow young from nest!!

Catherine on February 06, 2018:

Well guys, up until our own invasion, I was a big fan of starlings. Loved the colors and their impressive flying maneuvers. Now I have my own. Not quite as big a fan. We live in the country, in Texas, and for 20 years have hosted up to 40 pairs of Cardinals, a dozen Blue Jays and built up to a dozen or so Dove each winter along with all the miscellaneous little birds. We usually go through a 50lb. bag of black oil sunflower seeds, 50lbs. of wild bird seed, and 50 to 100 lbs. of corn in 2 weeks. This year a murder of Crows found us, but the squirrels and Blue Jays seem to keep them backed off a little. We have transitional breeds that come through in flocks, but they only stay a week or two before migrating on. The Starlings are not fazed by anything. Including cats. And they are like vacuum cleaners. Our trips to the feed store have doubled and I'm afraid we're going to lose our other birds. I'm going to try some of the suggestions mentioned in another site to hopefully move them along, but at this point I think I'm hoping for a few more hawks to hang around and bring their football team with them!

Joseph Jannuzzi on September 28, 2017:

I am helping my son do a school report on invasive species and we chose the starling because in our yard they are generally beneficial. They often get listed with other noxious invasive species such as gypsy moth and we have all heard the story of the the good intentioned person who released 60 pairs in Central Park because of "his love of Shakespeare." Interestingly though we found a 1910 source on birds and the book directly states the real reason they were released was to combat a caterpillar infestation in Central Park and we were able to corroborate at least partly through research that it was probably Gypsy Moth infestations stemming from the introduction of the moths for silk production back in the 1860s that caused the caterpillar problem in Central Park and the subsequent release of the starlings.

Margaret on October 15, 2016:

Grandma pearl, I really feel a connection to you. On Oct 14-15, 2016 a flock of starlings settled into the trees in my back yard. One was a black walnut tree which had an abundant of ripe walnuts and the starlings went to town. Hundreds of walnuts dropped onto our backyard and deck and made the most deafening sound. Those starlings had a feast. "When starlings begin to gather, be prepared for a brutal invasion."

Connie Smith (author) from Southern Tier New York State on March 11, 2013:

Hi Peggy, I have always admired the murmuration dances of the starlings. I imagine that the hawks do play a definite part in your lack of starlings. You would remember seeing one of these birds, I'm sure. They have such an iridescent beauty you can't help but notice. Maybe you don't have the gypsy moths or flies that hatch out of the ground in your area?

I'm very glad you enjoyed learning about these boisterous birds! I appreciate the votes very much; thank you ;)

Pearl

Peggy Woods from Houston, Texas on March 10, 2013:

I learned a new word today thanks to you and it is murmuration. I have viewed some other flocks of birds doing similar things with regard to flight but to my knowledge, I have never actually seen a starling up close. Where we live we have hawks and other predator type birds nearby. Perhaps that keeps the starlings at bay. Interesting learning about them. voted that and more. Thanks!

Connie Smith (author) from Southern Tier New York State on November 08, 2012:

Eddy, I am so glad you liked this one about the starlings. They are one of my very favorite birds despite their bad reputations. The plumage is so pretty, and they are very gifted mimics. There's a lot of talent there that goes unappreciated. Most people chase them off their feeders, but I am so glad to hear that you have welcomed this bird along with all the others. You have a very kind and generous heart!

Thank you so much for the votes and share and all your great support. I am always delighted to 'see' you! Pearl

Eiddwen from Wales on November 06, 2012:

This is a wonderful hub Pearl I love all the knowledge you have about our feathered friends.

This past we have a Starling coming to our bird feeders at first not being able to stand on the small perches which the Sparrows and Tits use. But after much determination he mastered it. He is now a daily visitor. Sometimes some more come with him but they soon fly off while he stays for a feed. I vote this up across the board and share. Have a wonderful day.

Eddy.

Connie Smith (author) from Southern Tier New York State on September 30, 2012:

Hi Millionaire Tips! I have always been fascinated by the beauty of the starlings, and the size of their flocks. In the fall they put on a spectacular show around here as we drive down the highway. They rise up from the field alongside the road and then move back and forth swirling in the sky as one unit. It is a fun sight to see! You are right, they are awesome birds! Thanks so much for stopping by, and for the great comments. They are very much appreciated.

Shasta Matova from USA on September 30, 2012:

You've provided lots of interesting facts about these birds here, Grandma Pearl. There is a park I go to that has a flock of these birds, but they haven't caused any problems as far as I know. They are pretty, and the murmurations are awesome!

Connie Smith (author) from Southern Tier New York State on September 02, 2012:

James, you are most welcome! I have always been fascinated by the starlings' beautiful coat and the way they fly in formation. I am so glad you stopped by and left such a nice comment. Your wonderful support is very much appreciated! Thank you.

James A Watkins from Chicago on August 31, 2012:

I must say, I didn't know a thing about starlings until you enlightened me about them tonight. Very interesting creatures and your report on them is most excellent. Thank you.

Connie Smith (author) from Southern Tier New York State on August 30, 2012:

Hi tillsontitan, I am very glad you stopped by and commented. You are right about starlings, there's a lot not to like. But then again, they do eat a ton of nasty grubs and things. I guess everything has a purpose, no matter how obnoxious they are! There are many people who keep them as pets because they can be taught to mimic humans. And I have always admired their 'starry' coats.

Thanks so much for the votes--they are very much appreciated!

Mary Craig from New York on August 30, 2012:

What great information on a bird most people would never write about! We see them, we love them, we hate them...but who would write about them? Great job with so much good information. I never knew about the murmuration or that they were mynas!

Voted up, useful, and interesting.

Connie Smith (author) from Southern Tier New York State on August 02, 2012:

Hello aravind! So nice to see you again! I have heard a lot about mynas and their vocal talents. It is surprising to me how many birds are mimics. Starling murmurations are something that has always fascinated me. The Creator has programmed them to dance in synchronization as a defense against sky predators, and it is truly awesome to witness. I am very glad you enjoyed this. Thank you so much for your special comments and your votes. They are definitely appreciated!

Connie Smith (author) from Southern Tier New York State on August 02, 2012:

Hi Nell, so nice to see you as always! Yes, those 60 pairs multiplied like 'rabbits'. And their vocal range is astounding. I will be reading your article about Red Kites and their talents for knowing what day it is! How cool is that when they start to circle! I love to learn about birds and their behavior. Thank you so much for your comments and for the votes and share. Much Appreciated!

Aravind Balasubramanya from Puttaparthi, India on August 02, 2012:

Wonderful! I am so much wiser after reading this hub. In my part of the world, I see a lot of mynas. But they do not seem to be as powerfully 'influential' as the starlings are - nor are they present in such large number.

It was the first time I watched a video of such a magnificent flock - almost scary. Thank you GrandmaPearl for another pearl of a hub! Voted awesome, beautiful, interesting and UP! :)

Nell Rose from England on August 01, 2012:

All this from the original 60 pairs! lol! fascinating birds though, all birds are really intelligent, I have Red Kites behind my house and they know when its thursday because I always pick up a hot chicken on the way home from work! they wait for me to eat it then they start circling like a load of vultures! lol! really interesting hub, wonderful! voted up and shared, nell

Connie Smith (author) from Southern Tier New York State on August 01, 2012:

Yes, "if given the chance" is exactly right! It never fails to astonish me that despite their so-called 'bird brains', birds are extremely intelligent and adaptable creatures. Guess that's why I get such a kick out of them! Thanks for stopping by, it's always nice to see you aviannovice!

Deb Hirt from Stillwater, OK on August 01, 2012:

Oh, yes, they are truly opportunists, if given the chance.


Hollywood's 50 Favorite Female Characters

Whatever else one can say about gender equality in Hollywood, there's clearly no shortage of female roles for space princesses, alien hunters and flying nannies.

For THR's latest intra-industry poll, the editors asked Hollywood professionals — actors, writers, directors and others — to take an online survey of their favorite fictional female characters. More than 1,800 participated — twice as many women as men — but the results proved there isn't such a great divide between the sexes after all, at least when it comes to what types of females we enjoy watching on screens. By comfortable majorities, both genders picked a certain Hogwarts know-it-all as their No. 1.

Naturally, the poll was anonymous, but some industry pros don't mind sharing. "The tough Angelina Jolie characters in Wanted and Salt — and whoever Ava Gardner played in capri pants," offers Dawn Hudson, CEO of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Hunger Games franchise producer Nina Jacobson confesses to having a "soft spot for Katniss Everdeen ," while Lucasfilm president Kathleen Kennedy admits that as a child she worshiped Scout from To Kill a Mockingbird. "I used to think I was her," she says.

Chances are, there's at least one character on these pages who you once imagined being, particularly if you're female — and maybe even if you're not. After all, who hasn't dreamt of bitch-slapping an alien, owning a pet dragon or even traveling by umbrella?

Click here to vote for your favorite female character of all time in THR's bracket.

Edited by Benjamin Svetkey and Andy Lewis. Reported by Rebecca Ford, Mia Galuppo , Borys Kit, Ashley Lee, Kendal McAlpin , Brian Porreca and Bryn Elise Sandberg.


European Starling

Widespread and abundant in much of North America, the introduced European starling is arguably and problematically the most successful bird on the continent. Often characterized as bold, this bird is actually fairly wary and can be difficult to approach. Poly­typic. Length 8.7".

Stocky and short tailed, often seen strutting about lawns and parking lots. Flight profile distinctive: buzzy in sustained flight, wings look triangular in more leisurely flight. In flight, wings appear translucent. Adult: one molt per year, but fresh fall adults look very different from summer birds. On freshly molted birds, black plumage has white spots all over by winter, spots start to disappear and by spring, the birds are glossy black all over, with strong suffusions of iridescent pinks, greens, and ambers. Bill usually gray in fall and yellow by winter, but this character varies with diet. Male: with good look, note blue-based bill. Female: with good look, note pink-based bill, paler eyes. Juvenile: distinctive dark gray-brown feathering all over. Birds begin a complete molt into adultlike plumage soon after fledging, and briefly exhibit a striking mosaic of juvenal and adult feathers.

Apparently, only the nominate subspecies occurs here 12 other subspecies in Old World.

Structure distinctive, but sometimes confused with un­related blackbirds, which often co-occur with starlings in large flocks. Blackbirds more slender bodied, with longer tails and less-pointy wings. Flight profile more like a waxwing’s or a meadowlark’s than blackbird’s.

Highly varied. Call: commonly heard calls include drawn-out, hissing sssssheeeer and whistled wheeeeoooo. Song: elaborate, lengthy (>1 min. long), with complex rattling and whirring elements, and overall wheezy quality call notes may be incorporated into song. Imitates other species, especially those with whistled notes (e.g., killdeer, eastern wood pewee).

Status and Distribution

Abundant. Breeding: needs natural or artificial cavities. Often evicts native species from nest holes. Migration: withdraws in winter from northern portion of range. Winter: gregarious, with largest concentrations around cities, feedlots. Vagrant: still expanding range in the Americas, and out-of-range individuals (e.g., on western Aleutians) are difficult to assess.

Successfully introduced in Central Park, New York, 1890–91 across continent by late 1940s. Population currently exceeds 200 million.


Much ado about starlings

"The starlings, or at least the ones that were brought over were, or became, quite aggressive," said Walt Koenig, a senior scientist at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. As a species, Koenig said that starlings are omnivorous, meaning they eat pretty much anything — insects, seeds and even occasionally baby birds — and are able to survive and thrive in a wide range of habitats. Schieffelin, undoubtedly, could not have imagined that the birds he released would multiply into several hundred million and become what Koenig calls "probably the single most successful introduced, or non-native, bird species in the United States, if not the world."

The starlings are cavity nesters and became very successful at competing for nesting sites with native bird species, such as bluebirds, that also nest in the cavities of trees and other places. "There are numerous reports of them usurping nests of native cavity-nesting species, unambiguously demonstrating their ability to displace a variety of species," added Koenig, who has a study site in California and has written a paper about the effects of starlings on native cavity-nesting species.

What makes starlings such a problem, he said, is that they are extremely messy nesters. "They bring in all sorts of sticks, the kids defecate all over the cavities and, generally, leave the cavities in worse shape than they found them," he said. "That makes it harder for other species to reuse the cavities later on. I think of them as 'using up' cavities in a way other species do not."

"What is more debatable," he continued, "are the demographic effects of starlings on native species. They certainly can cause native species to delay nesting, and there are studies suggesting that they have had, or are having, significant negative effects in some local cases. But, the evidence for them having driven widespread declines in any North American native bird species (based on analyses of Christmas Bird Counts and Breeding Bird Surveys) is oddly weak given the behavioral observations." This oddity, he said, is a topic that interests him and one that he may very well revisit in the near future.

(Until then, there's always time to train a starling to irritate someone you're not very fond of.)


Critics’ Choice Awards 2021: Full List of Nominees and Winners

More News

Awards season may look a bit different this year, but that isn’t stopping the film and TV industry from commemorating hard work. On Sunday, March 7, stars gathered both virtually and in person to celebrate the 26th Annual Critics’ Choice Awards.

See What the Stars Wore on the 2021 Critics’ Choice Red Carpet

While nominees joined the ceremony virtually, the awards show mainly took place at the Barker Hangar in Santa Monica, California. Host Taye Diggs and certain presenters appeared in person, including Justin Hartley and Chrissy Metz.

“We are so thrilled to be celebrating the incredible work that was released during this extended season,” said Critics’ Choice Association CEO Joey Berlin. “In a year when the need for entertainment was undeniable, the industry rallied to deliver beautiful series that delighted us, educated us, challenged us, and most importantly, brought us all together.”

During the show, Zendaya was honored with the SeeHer Award. Established in 2016, the annual award recognizes a woman who defies stereotypes and acknowledges the importance of authentic portrayals of women across the entertainment landscape.

Ready to learn more about who’s up for the awards? Scroll to see this year’s nominees, with the complete list of winners (in bold).

BEST PICTURE
Da 5 Bloods (Netflix)
Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom (Netflix)
Mank (Netflix)
Minari (A24)
News of the World (Universal Pictures)
Nomadland (Searchlight Pictures)
One Night in Miami (Amazon Studios)
Promising Young Woman (Focus Features)
Sound of Metal (Amazon Studios)
The Trial of the Chicago 7 (Netflix)

BEST ACTOR
Ben Affleck – The Way Back (Warner Bros.)
Riz Ahmed – Sound of Metal (Amazon Studios)
Chadwick Boseman – Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom (Netflix)
Tom Hanks – News of the World (Universal Pictures)
Anthony Hopkins – The Father (Sony Pictures Classics)
Delroy Lindo – Da 5 Bloods (Netflix)
Gary Oldman – Mank (Netflix)
Steven Yeun – Minari (A24)

Couples Who Made Their Red Carpet Debuts at an Awards Show

BEST ACTRESS
Viola Davis – Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom (Netflix)
Andra Day – The United States vs. Billie Holiday (Hulu)
Sidney Flanigan – Never Rarely Sometimes Always (Focus Features)
Vanessa Kirby – Pieces of a Woman (Netflix)
Frances McDormand – Nomadland (Searchlight Pictures)
Carey Mulligan – Promising Young Woman (Focus Features)
Zendaya – Malcolm & Marie (Netflix)

BEST SUPPORTING ACTOR
Chadwick Boseman – Da 5 Bloods (Netflix)
Sacha Baron Cohen – The Trial of the Chicago 7 (Netflix)
Daniel Kaluuya – Judas and the Black Messiah (Warner Bros.)
Bill Murray – On the Rocks (A24/Apple TV+)
Leslie Odom, Jr. – One Night in Miami (Amazon Studios)
Paul Raci – Sound of Metal (Amazon Studios)

BEST SUPPORTING ACTRESS
Maria Bakalova – Borat Subsequent Moviefilm (Amazon Studios)
Ellen Burstyn – Pieces of a Woman (Netflix)
Glenn Close – Hillbilly Elegy (Netflix)
Olivia Colman – The Father (Sony Pictures Classics)
Amanda Seyfried – Mank (Netflix)
Yuh-Jung Youn – Minari (A24)

BEST YOUNG ACTOR/ACTRESS
Ryder Allen – Palmer (Apple TV+)
Ibrahima Gueye – The Life Ahead (Netflix)
Alan Kim – Minari (A24)
Talia Ryder – Never Rarely Sometimes Always (Focus Features)
Caoilinn Springall – The Midnight Sky (Netflix)
Helena Zengel – News of the World (Universal Pictures)

BEST ACTING ENSEMBLE
Da 5 Bloods (Netflix)
Judas and the Black Messiah (Warner Bros.)
Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom (Netflix)
Minari (A24)
One Night in Miami (Amazon Studios)
The Trial of the Chicago 7 (Netflix)

BEST DIRECTOR
Lee Isaac Chung – Minari (A24)
Emerald Fennell – Promising Young Woman (Focus Features)
David Fincher – Mank (Netflix)
Spike Lee – Da 5 Bloods (Netflix)
Regina King – One Night in Miami (Amazon Studios)
Aaron Sorkin – The Trial of the Chicago 7 (Netflix)
Chloé Zhao – Nomadland (Searchlight Pictures)

Stars Who Brought Food to Awards Shows: Melissa McCarthy, Gemma Chan, More

BEST ORIGINAL SCREENPLAY
Lee Isaac Chung – Minari (A24)
Emerald Fennell – Promising Young Woman (Focus Features)
Jack Fincher – Mank (Netflix)
Eliza Hittman – Never Rarely Sometimes Always (Focus Features)
Darius Marder & Abraham Marder – Sound of Metal (Amazon Studios)
Aaron Sorkin – The Trial of the Chicago 7 (Netflix)

BEST ADAPTED SCREENPLAY
Paul Greengrass & Luke Davies – News of the World (Universal Pictures)
Christopher Hampton and Florian Zeller – The Father (Sony Pictures Classics)
Kemp Powers – One Night in Miami (Amazon Studios)
Jon Raymond & Kelly Reichardt – First Cow (A24)
Ruben Santiago-Hudson – Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom (Netflix)
Chloé Zhao – Nomadland (Searchlight Pictures)

BEST CINEMATOGRAPHY
Christopher Blauvelt – First Cow (A24)
Erik Messerschmidt – Mank (Netflix)
Lachlan Milne – Minari (A24)
Joshua James Richards – Nomadland (Searchlight Pictures)
Newton Thomas Sigel – Da 5 Bloods (Netflix)
Hoyte Van Hoytema – Tenet (Warner Bros.)
Dariusz Wolski – News of the World (Universal Pictures)

BEST PRODUCTION DESIGN
Cristina Casali, Charlotte Dirickx – The Personal History of David Copperfield (Searchlight Pictures)
David Crank, Elizabeth Keenan – News of the World (Universal Pictures)
Nathan Crowley, Kathy Lucas – Tenet (Warner Bros.)
Donald Graham Burt, Jan Pascale – Mank (Netflix)
Kave Quinn, Stella Fox – Emma (Focus Features)
Mark Ricker, Karen O’Hara & Diana Stoughton – Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom (Netflix)

BEST EDITING
Alan Baumgarten – The Trial of the Chicago 7 (Netflix)
Kirk Baxter – Mank (Netflix)
Jennifer Lame – Tenet (Warner Bros.)
Yorgos Lamprinos – The Father (Sony Pictures Classics)
Mikkel E. G. Nielsen – Sound of Metal (Amazon Studios)
Chloé Zhao – Nomadland (Searchlight Pictures)

BEST COSTUME DESIGN
Alexandra Byrne – Emma (Focus Features)
Bina Daigeler – Mulan (Disney)
Suzie Harman & Robert Worley – The Personal History of David Copperfield (Searchlight Pictures)
Ann Roth – Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom (Netflix)
Nancy Steiner – Promising Young Woman (Focus Features)
Trish Summerville – Mank (Netflix)

BEST HAIR AND MAKEUP
Emma (Focus Features)
Hillbilly Elegy (Netflix)
Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom (Netflix)
Mank (Netflix)
Promising Young Woman (Focus Features)
The United States vs. Billie Holiday (Hulu)

BEST VISUAL EFFECTS
Greyhound (Apple TV+)
The Invisible Man (Universal Pictures)
Mank (Netflix)
The Midnight Sky (Netflix)
Mulan (Disney)
Tenet (Warner Bros.)
Wonder Woman 1984 (Warner Bros.)

BEST COMEDY
Borat Subsequent Moviefilm (Amazon Studios)
The Forty-Year-Old Version (Netflix)
The King of Staten Island (Universal Pictures)
On the Rocks (A24/Apple TV+)
Palm Springs (Hulu and NEON)
The Prom (Netflix)

BEST FOREIGN LANGUAGE FILM
Another Round (Samuel Goldwyn Films)
Collective (Magnolia Pictures)
La Llorona (Shudder)
The Life Ahead (Netflix)
Minari (A24)
Two of Us (Magnolia Pictures)

BEST SONG
“Everybody Cries” – The Outpost (Screen Media Films)
“Fight for You” – Judas and the Black Messiah (Warner Bros.)
“Husavik (My Home Town)” – Eurovision Song Contest: The Story of Fire Saga (Netflix)
“Io sì (Seen)” – The Life Ahead (Netflix)
“Speak Now” – One Night in Miami (Amazon Studios)
“Tigress & Tweed” – The United States vs. Billie Holiday (Hulu)

BEST SCORE
Alexandre Desplat – The Midnight Sky (Netflix)
Ludwig Göransson – Tenet (Warner Bros.)
James Newton Howard – News of the World (Universal Pictures)
Emile Mosseri – Minari (A24)
Trent Reznor & Atticus Ross – Mank (Netflix)
Trent Reznor, Atticus Ross, and Jon Batiste – Soul (Disney)

BEST DRAMA SERIES
Better Call Saul (AMC)
The Crown (Netflix)
The Good Fight (CBS All Access)
Lovecraft Country (HBO)
The Mandalorian (Disney+)
Ozark (Netflix)
Perry Mason (HBO)
This Is Us (NBC)

BEST ACTOR IN A DRAMA SERIES
Jason Bateman – Ozark (Netflix)
Sterling K. Brown – This Is Us (NBC)
Jonathan Majors – Lovecraft Country (HBO)
Josh O’Connor – The Crown (Netflix)
Bob Odenkirk – Better Call Saul (AMC)
Matthew Rhys – Perry Mason (HBO)

BEST ACTRESS IN A DRAMA SERIES
Christine Baranski – The Good Fight (CBS All Access)
Olivia Colman – The Crown (Netflix)
Emma Corrin – The Crown (Netflix)
Claire Danes – Homeland (Showtime)
Laura Linney – Ozark (Netflix)
Jurnee Smollett – Lovecraft Country (HBO)

BEST SUPPORTING ACTOR IN A DRAMA SERIES
Jonathan Banks – Better Call Saul (AMC)
Justin Hartley – This Is Us (NBC)
John Lithgow – Perry Mason (HBO)
Tobias Menzies – The Crown (Netflix)
Tom Pelphrey – Ozark (Netflix)
Michael K. Williams – Lovecraft Country (HBO)

BEST SUPPORTING ACTRESS IN A DRAMA SERIES
Gillian Anderson – The Crown (Netflix)
Cynthia Erivo – The Outsider (HBO)
Julia Garner – Ozark (Netflix)
Janet McTeer – Ozark (Netflix)
Wunmi Mosaku – Lovecraft Country (HBO)
Rhea Seehorn – Better Call Saul (AMC)

BEST COMEDY SERIES
Better Things (FX)
The Flight Attendant (HBO Max)
Mom (CBS)
PEN15 (Hulu)
Ramy (Hulu)
Schitt’s Creek (Pop)
Ted Lasso (Apple TV+)
What We Do in the Shadows (FX)

BEST ACTOR IN A COMEDY SERIES
Hank Azaria – Brockmire (IFC)
Matt Berry – What We Do in the Shadows (FX)
Nicholas Hoult – The Great (Hulu)
Eugene Levy – Schitt’s Creek (Pop)
Jason Sudeikis – Ted Lasso (Apple TV+)
Ramy Youssef – Ramy (Hulu)

BEST ACTRESS IN A COMEDY SERIES
Pamela Adlon – Better Things (FX)
Christina Applegate – Dead to Me (Netflix)
Kaley Cuoco – The Flight Attendant (HBO Max)
Natasia Demetriou – What We Do in the Shadows (FX)
Catherine O’Hara – Schitt’s Creek (Pop)
Issa Rae – Insecure (HBO)

BEST SUPPORTING ACTOR IN A COMEDY SERIES
William Fichtner – Mom (CBS)
Harvey Guillén – What We Do in the Shadows (FX)
Daniel Levy – Schitt’s Creek (Pop)
Alex Newell – Zoey’s Extraordinary Playlist (NBC)
Mark Proksch – What We Do in the Shadows (FX)
Andrew Rannells – Black Monday (Showtime)

BEST SUPPORTING ACTRESS IN A COMEDY SERIES
Lecy Goranson – The Conners (ABC)
Rita Moreno – One Day at a Time (Pop)
Annie Murphy – Schitt’s Creek (Pop)
Ashley Park – Emily in Paris (Netflix)
Jaime Pressly – Mom (CBS)
Hannah Waddingham – Ted Lasso (Apple TV+)

BEST LIMITED SERIES
I May Destroy You (HBO)
Mrs. America (FX)
Normal People (Hulu)
The Plot Against America (HBO)
The Queen’s Gambit (Netflix)
Small Axe (Amazon Studios)
The Undoing (HBO)
Unorthodox (Netflix)

BEST MOVIE MADE FOR TELEVISION
Bad Education (HBO)
Between the World and Me (HBO)
The Clark Sisters: First Ladies of Gospel (Lifetime)
Hamilton (Disney+)
Sylvie’s Love (Amazon Studios)
What the Constitution Means to Me (Amazon Studios)

BEST ACTOR IN A LIMITED SERIES OR MOVIE MADE FOR TELEVISION
John Boyega – Small Axe (Amazon Studios)
Hugh Grant – The Undoing (HBO)
Paul Mescal – Normal People (Hulu)
Chris Rock – Fargo (FX)
Mark Ruffalo – I Know This Much is True (HBO)
Morgan Spector – The Plot Against America (HBO)

BEST ACTRESS IN A LIMITED SERIES OR MOVIE MADE FOR TELEVISION
Cate Blanchett – Mrs. America (FX)
Michaela Coel – I May Destroy You (HBO)
Daisy Edgar-Jones – Normal People (Hulu)
Shira Haas – Unorthodox (Netflix)
Anya Taylor-Joy – The Queen’s Gambit (Netflix)
Tessa Thompson – Sylvie’s Love (Amazon Studios)

BEST SUPPORTING ACTOR IN A LIMITED SERIES OR MOVIE MADE FOR TELEVISION
Daveed Diggs – The Good Lord Bird (Showtime)
Joshua Caleb Johnson – The Good Lord Bird (Showtime)
Dylan McDermott – Hollywood (Netflix)
Donald Sutherland – The Undoing (HBO)
Glynn Turman – Fargo (FX)
John Turturro – The Plot Against America (HBO)

BEST SUPPORTING ACTRESS IN A LIMITED SERIES OR MOVIE MADE FOR TELEVISION
Uzo Aduba – Mrs. America (FX)
Betsy Brandt – Soulmates (AMC)
Marielle Heller – The Queen’s Gambit (Netflix)
Margo Martindale – Mrs. America (FX)
Winona Ryder – The Plot Against America (HBO)
Tracey Ullman – Mrs. America (FX)

BEST TALK SHOW
Desus & Mero (Showtime)
Full Frontal with Samantha Bee (TBS)
The Kelly Clarkson Show (NBC/Syndicated)
Late Night with Seth Meyers (NBC)
The Late Show with Stephen Colbert (CBS)
Red Table Talk (Facebook Watch)

BEST COMEDY SPECIAL
Fortune Feimster: Sweet & Salty (Netflix)
Hannah Gadsby: Douglas (Netflix)
Jerry Seinfeld: 23 Hours to Kill (Netflix)
Marc Maron: End Times Fun (Netflix)
Michelle Buteau: Welcome to Buteaupia (Netflix)
Patton Oswalt: I Love Everything (Netflix)

BEST SHORT FORM SERIES
The Andy Cohen Diaries (Quibi)
Better Call Saul: Ethics Training with Kim Wexler (AMC/Youtube)
Mapleworth Murders (Quibi)
Nikki Fre$h (Quibi)
Reno 911! (Quibi)
Tooning Out the News (CBS All Access)

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